2018 6 June Update
In the version 2.1, there were minor mistakes in the estimates for 10 countries (Albania, Bolivia, Cameroon, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Fiji, Ghana, Kenya, South Africa, Sweden). The data set of version 2.2, which reflects the corrections, replaces the version 2.1 and is available at the data page.
2016 4 Feb. Update
In the version 2.0, there was a mistake in the estimates for China. The new estimates for China are available here [click]. The data set of version 2.0 is changed accordingly and available as version 2.1 at the data page.
2014 30 Aug. Update
In the version 2.0, there was a mistake in the estimates for Finland in 2005 and 2010. The new estimates for Finland is available here [click]. The data set of version 2.0 is changed accordingly and available at the data page. We thank Aleksi Kalenius for pointing out this mistake.
2014 30 June Update
The new version
(2.0) is now available.
This version of
the Barro-Lee data set has made several important changes to the earlier
version (1.3) reported in Barro and Lee (2013). Hanol Lee, a Ph.D. Student in Economics at Korea
University, has provided excellent research assistance.
affected various countries in the sample. The major changes are as follows:
- We have updated estimates of educational attainment by using the recently available UNESCO census data. They include 89 census observations from the 86 countries, mostly for the years 2005 and 2010. The census data on educational attainment of the population by age and by gender are kindly provided by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
- We have also collected the new census/survey observations from the UN demographic yearbook and national publications from statistics bureaus.
- We have added 126 census/survey observations in total and used them as benchmark figures for the estimation of educational attainment. The following table provides detailed information on these additional observations.
- We have corrected minor errors in the UNESCO censuses, including Korea in 1990 and Mexico in 2000.
- To maintain consistency with the observations from the other sources, we have reformulated the completion ratio of tertiary-level attainment for the census observations sourced from the UN Demographic yearbooks. The tertiary completion ratio is defined as the percentage of the number of people who have attained schooling at ISCED 5A or 6 in the number of people who have attained schooling at ISCED 5A, 5B or 6. The people who have ever enrolled in the 4th year of colleges or universities belong to the complete category.
- We have used the updated data on enrollment ratios for total and female school-aged population at each education level for 2005 and 2010.
- In this version, we have checked more carefully the consistency between the estimates of the distribution of educational attainment among total, female and male population by age group. We report the data for male population by age group together with the ones for total and female population.
- We are currently constructing estimates of historical educational attainment from 1870 to 1945 in five-year intervals. For the estimation, in this version (2.0), we have used newly compiled data on school duration data and school enrollment ratios for the years before 1950, and adopted a modified backward extrapolation technique. Accordingly, there are some changes in the estimates for the older-age population after 1950 (that is, those derived from the estimates for school-age population before 1950). We will report historical data on school duration and school enrollment ratios, as well as a new data set of historical educational attainment, with new estimation procedures, at the next opportunity.
- The version (1.3) released on April 2013 is also available.
2013 09 April Update
The new version (1.3) is now available!
This version (1.3) of the Barro-Lee data
set has made several changes to the earlier version (1.2). The changes affected
various countries in the sample, but they are not significant in magnitude for
The changes are:
- We have evaluated more carefully the accuracy of the forward-flow and backward- flow estimates of educational attainment for the total and female population in the age group, 15-19 and 20-24. We have made corrections to those estimates that showed unrealistic fluctuations over time, which are mainly due to measurement errors in school enrollment rates. The new estimates display a smoother trend in each category of educational attainment and average years of schooling among the younger cohorts than the previous estimates.
- We have checked the accuracy of the estimates of educational attainment among male population by age group, which are constructed from the estimates among total and female population by age group. We have made corrections to the estimates that showed unrealistic fluctuations over time.
- We have changed the backward extrapolation method. We continue to apply the backward extrapolation procedure to fill in missing data for each age group by using the attainment of the older age group from the succeeding period. But it turns out that the backward-flow extrapolated estimates for the age group below 65 years old are not often accurate if we use the attainment of the age group over 65 years old from the succeeding period as benchmark data when they are not from census. So, we decide not to use the backward extrapolation method for this case. Instead, we have estimated the attainment of the age group, 60-64 by using the group-average age-specific profile for the same age group constructed using the available data of the countries in advanced countries or developing countries, and then used the estimates as benchmark data for the backward extrapolation for the age group in the preceding period.
- We have used recently available UNESCO data of secondary and tertiary enrollment rates for 2010 to estimate missing attainment data. This has affected secondary and tertiary educational attainment among the population in the age group, 15-19 and 20-24.
2011 04 Sept. Update
The new version (1.2) is now available!
This version (1.2) improves on the earlier version (1.1) by incorporating recently available census observations and correcting inaccurate estimates of completion ratios.
- The new census data are now available through UNESCO and national statistical offices.
- The census data for the following countries are available through UNESCO: Canada, Fiji, Ghana, Guyana, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Maldives, Namibia, Papua New Guinea, Tonga and United Arab Emirates; while the census data for the following countries are available through their respective statistical offices: Macro SAR, Cote d'Ivoire, Guatemala, Italy, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Sri Lanka and United States.
- Some countries have extremely low or high county specific primary/secondary completion ratios. As these imply unusual trends in the completion ratios, we replaced them by the regional specific primary/secondary completion ratios. These countries include: Afghanistan, Algeria, Austria, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo (only F), Hungary, India, Malta, Myanmar, New Zealand, Portugal (only MF), Sierre Leone, United Kingdom and Zambia.
- A more detailed list of these revisions is available here.
- The version (1.2) released on September 2011 is available here.
12 Nov. Update
The note on data sources and country-specific information is now available.
Revised version of the Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset is now available!
- The differences in the estimates between this and the previous version are due to some errors in the previous version. These include some data entry, data expansion, completion estimation, and other minor estimation errors. There are only minor differences in the average years of schooling data series between this and the previous version. A more detailed list of these will be uploaded in this site soon.
- The version (1.1) released on July 2010 is available here.